Drowning accidents are the leading cause of injury and deaths among children under five. A temporary lapse in supervision is a common factor in most drownings and near-drownings. As there is often no splashing or other warnings of trouble, child drownings can happen in seconds, and in as little as 3 inches of water. Swim lessons teach children and adults to be water-aware and engage in safe activities in and out of the water. Click here to find out about swim lessons offered by the city’s Parks & Recreation Department.
A swimming pool is 14 times more likely than a motor vehicle to be involved in the death of children age 4 and under. Each year, approximately 1,150 children ages 14 and under drown; more than half of whom are preschoolers. In the United States, an estimated 5,000 children annually are hospitalized due to near-drownings. Of children surviving near-drownings, 5-20 percent suffer disability. Of all preschoolers who drown, 70 percent are in the care of one of both parents at the time of the drowning; 75 percent are missing from sight for five minutes or less. Two-thirds of all drownings happen between May and August with 40 percent occurring on weekends.
Drowning surpasses all other causes of death to children ages 14 and under in 10 states. Each year more than 2,000 drownings involving children occur in residential swimming pools, approximately 350 drownings happen in bathtubs and approximately 40 children drown in five-gallon buckets.
There is no substitute for adult supervision around pools and hot tubs. In addition, the use of pool fencing would prevent 50-90 percent of childhood pool drownings and near-drownings as children often drown during routine household activities, with adults present and providing normal levels of supervision. Most drowned or nearly drowned children were last seen in the house, away from the pool or spa. No matter how or where the drowning happened -- pool, spa, or any other body of water -- one thing remained the same, the seconds that claimed their child's life slid by silently, without warning.
No safety feature can replace proper supervision, as water is a magnet for children. Young children, often have no fear of water and no concept of death. They associate water with play not with danger. Adults must establish, communicate and enforce rules and take responsibility for child safety. If a child is missing, check the pool area first.
Assign an adult "water watcher" to supervise the pool/spa area or any other body of water, especially during social gatherings. Assign a second adult to maintain constant visual contact with children in the pool/spa area or any body of water that might attract a child. Never assume someone else is watching a child. In addition, never leave a child alone near a pool/spa, bathtub, toilet, water filled bucket, pond or any standing body of water in which a child's nose and mouth may be submersed. Don't rely on swimming lessons, a life preserver, or any other equipment to keep a child safe, as 25 percent of all childhood victims have had swimming lessons.
Insist that everyone in the household, using the pool/spa and is over 14 years of age, be certified for infant/child safety and CPR.
Communicate pool safety measures with the baby-sitter and train the sitter on infant/child CPR.
Adults should learn how to swim and administer rescue techniques.
Mount rescue equipment by the pool such as a lifesaving ring, shepherd's hook and a CPR sign.
A posted sign should provide rules for pool/spa use and end with the phone number for the Fire Department’s medical rescue phone number, 9-1-1
Install a phone near the water area.
Install warning alarms on doors and windows leading to the water.
Install a non-climbable, five-foot fence that separates the pool/spa from the residence. Fence slat openings should be no more than four inches wide so children cannot squeeze through the spaces.
Install self-closing and self-latching gates and doors leading to the pool/spa with latches above a child's reach. Gates should open outward.
Install a pool safety cover (power operated are the safest and easiest to use).